Tag Archives: BOD

Facultative Lagoons

Like most natural environments, conditions inside facultative lagoons are always changing. Lagoons experience cycles due to variations in the weather, composition of the wastewater and other factors. In general, the wastewater in facultative lagoons naturally settles into three fairly distinct … Continue reading

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The Process of Nitrification

Biological nitrification is a method used to prevent oxygen depletion from nitrogenous oxygen demand (NOD) in the receiving waters. Nitrification is simply the conversion of ammonia to nitrate in the treatment plant rather than in the receiving water. Nitrification may be … Continue reading

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Seasonal Changes

As the days continue to shorten and the temperature drops, it’s time to think about what changes need to be made to the wastewater treatment plant to continue to be in compliance during the colder months. As the air temperature … Continue reading

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Bar Screens

A bar screen is the first piece of equipment the influent wastewater comes in contact with at the treatment facility. It is described as parallel wires or bars that remove large untreatable objects, such as rocks, sticks and floatables, from … Continue reading

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Calculating the Food to Microorganism Ratio

The food to microorganism ratio (F/M) is a process control tool that is used to help optimize the wastewater treatment plant. It is a ratio of pounds of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) entering the plant (F) to the pounds of … Continue reading

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Conventional Activated Sludge

A conventional activated sludge plant (CAS) is the precursor to the extended aeration plants that are favored by smaller facilities (less than 15 MGD) in the Commonwealth today. The CAS normally begins with the following preliminary treatment processes: a screening … Continue reading

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What Dissolved Oxygen?

The elevated temperatures that we have seen the last few days in the Commonwealth can cause major changes to wastewater treatment. More sludge can be wasted in summer months than winter months due to fewer microorganisms needed to treat the same amount … Continue reading

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